IIUG World 2019

IIUG World 2018 in Arlington Virginia this past October was a successful conference at a great venue! Looking forward to IIUG World 2019 - stay tuned to iiugWorld.com for details!

Thursday, August 1, 2019

New RFE I have posted

Please vote for this RFE if you agree with it.


RFE Description:

When creating a stored procedure or function with the IF NOT EXISTS optional clause included, the option text is currently included in the saved source code for the procedure.

This should be changed such that the optional clause is removed before saving the procedure source code in sysprocbody.


This can confuse some software, both IBM and third party, written to analyse and support Informix and is not necessary to be saved as its addition does not change the understanding of the procedure source nor how it was created. The very fact that the source with that text was saved indicates that the procedure did not exist at the time it was last created which would be true and the only valid inference even without that text.

Similarly, when the behavior of CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE/FUNCTION is fixed, that syntax should also not be saved as it also does not add to the understanding of the routine's creation and will further break third party tools.

Friday, May 31, 2019

IIUG World 2019 is coming!

The 2019 IIUG World conference registration site is open!

Register now for the Early Bird discount and save! (Don't forget to get your IIUG Member ID number so you can also get the members' discount!)


Also it is not too late to submit user session proposals to the conference board!

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Informix to the Rescue!

It was 1990. I was brought into a major New York mutual fund and private wealth management firm (call it NB) along with another consultant to review their systems and help them plan for the future. At the time their systems were all written in FORTRAN running on Prime Systems' hardware using a non-SQL relational database system that only ran on Prime. Prime Systems had just announced that they would no longer be manufacturing hardware and would only continue supporting existing computer systems for a few years. Because of this NB needed to find new hardware, a new database system, and port all of their applications to this new environment. We were to help with the product evaluation and recommendation and estimate the porting effort at the end of which one or both of us might be hired full time.

Along the way we evaluated Sun, HP, and DEC hardware (NB was adamant that they were not interested in IBM systems). We mostly looked at various UNIX variants (System V, BSD, and OSF-1), although DEC kept saying things like "Yes, yes we have Alpha based systems running OSF and System V. You really should be looking at VAX/VMS systems!" But NB was convinced that proprietary OS's were the past, they'd just been bitten by Prime/Primos, and wanted to go with a UNIX variant. We had meetings with Oracle, Sybase, Informix, Unify, Progress, and Ingres including some demos and discussions with developers and support engineers about features and internals.

Anyway, we carefully gathered specifications, counted lines of code and numbers of modules, evaluated plans for new projects in the pipeline that had been halted after Prime's announcement, met with hardware and database vendors and after maybe six months or so we made our recommendations. Here they are with a concise brief of our reasons:

  • Hardware - Sun server blades
    HP and DEC each had multiple OS's and hardware platforms. On the OS side, UNIX wasn't the main product for either company. We were concerned about their commitment to UNIX in the future and Sun was 100% UNIX and was gaining ground in the industry.
  • OS - UNIX System V - Solaris
    See hardware...
  • Database - Informix OnLine v4.01
    NB didn't like the locking model on some of the databases. Oracle didn't have any development tools beyond a very simplistic form manager and an ESQL implementation that was incomplete against the developing standard. Also Oracle's SQL dialect did not conform well to the SQL-89 standard. Informix OnLine had row level locking, stored procedures, triggers, referential integrity, and was the first RDBMS that could be archived successfully while fully online (hence the name) processing transactions. Informix had started as a development tool company that happened to have a great database, so there was a very complete ESQL/C implementation as well as a 4th Generation Language (4GL) and high level menu, forms, and reporting tools for building quick applications when responsiveness to business requirements was needed. Sybase was similar in design to Informix, but, at the time, it did not have an ESQL/C implementation at all, only its Open Client (OC) library. While several years later OC became the ODBC v1 interface library standard, at the time it was purely proprietary to Sybase.
  • Development environment - ESQL/C (for its portability across SQL databases)
They said "Thank you." for our recommendation report, hired both of us full time, and then went ahead and bought:
  • Hardware - DEC Alpha - because DEC's stock was performing better in the market than Sun's (NB was, after all, a financial organization).
  • OS - OSF-1 - because both DEC and IBM were driving the development - "How can it not be big!"
  • Database - Sybase - because all of Wall Street was using Sybase, so NB should also! Oh, and Sybase promised to deliver an working ESQL/C in 90 days.
Anyway, long story long, we spend four months getting things up and running on the new systems and ported the first application, NB's client billings and invoice generation. First problem we ran into was how to represent portfolio values. Some financial instruments were priced in Japanese Yen, Italian Lire, and Hungarian Lira. Any client that owned many shares of any of these securities would have either a native currency value with more whole unit digits or a US currency balance with more fractional digits than a Sybase DECIMAL type could hold (15 total digits fixed as 12 to the left of the decimal and three to the right). The head of development and I attended a Sybase Financial Users Group meeting and asked them "What are you doing about this? Do any of you have, or know about, an Open Server module that can handle larger numbers?" (Open Server was a library of functions one could use to add functionality to Sybase - a unique feature at the time.) The answer was basically that "there are no such Open Server modules" because no one was willing to use the Sybase Open Server libraries to basically build a customized server (SOS modules were linked into the base server). "Then how are you handling the larger numbers for big customers with Yen and Lira securities?" we asked. The answer was "We don't have any such, and we're hoping we never do." NB did. (For what it's worth, Informix's DECIMAL type supported up to 32 decimal digits of precision, either floating point or configurable fixed point.) Strike one!

Then we started to really code the application and found that the ESQL/C that Sybase delivered was a) not ready for prime time (apps built with it kept crashing) and b) was brain dead, and missing several features of the language that we needed like named cursors and multiple cursors in a single application. Sybase wanted 12 months to get those features implemented for us. Strike two.

Strike three was performance. Our initial tests were that our brand spanking new DEC Alpha, cutting edge systems, running Sybase, would take up to 4 days to process the data and generate the invoices that the several years old, out-of-date technology of the Prime systems could get done in around one day. Strike 3. 

We called Informix, loaded up Informix Online v5.02 and ESQL/C, exported and imported the database (again), recompiled the code improving it using the features we couldn't get from the Sybase ESQL/C, and wham! We were done with Billing and invoicing in another month or so and getting the invoice runs done on a Sunday afternoon (OK after they finally went out and bought the faster and higher volume printers we had recommended because we were now generating reports faster than the operators could change the paper in the printers they originally purchased - forgot that part). Later other interactive systems were written in Informix 4GL and even a couple using Informix's Forms, Menus, and Reports modules. Go Informix!

Let me know if you want to hear more stories like this.

Monday, February 25, 2019

New series


I am about to begin a series of posts that will hopefully be a monthly thing. The basis of the series is stories about how Informix performs against other options in the real world. Some will be older stories (I will probably start there). Others will be more recent. I encourage anyone who wants to send me stories they can relate or a pointer to someone who can relate the story to me privately and I will post these with appropriate sourcing or anonymity as requested.

I am traveling today, so I will start later this week with a story from my own experience from ancient history relating an incident where Informix and Sybase went head-to-head.

Some of the series will be short anecdotes, others more full blown out tales. I hope you enjoy.

Tuesday, October 23, 2018

IIUG World 2018

https://lnkd.in/d6siP7Y I will be presenting two sessions at the 2018 IIUG World Conference in Arlington, Virginia outside Washington DC next week. The first session is "Hello! Your data is calling!" where I will be presenting about the new "Smart Triggers" feature of Informix which allows users to create applications that passively receive notification when data in a registered table is modified. The second session is "Uninterruptable transactions with Informix!" in which I will demonstrate the Informix Transaction Survival feature that will allow active transactions to survive the crash of the primary server in a high availability or remote secondary cluster environment.

Tuesday, April 17, 2018

Looks like Oracle is worried about Informix again!

OMG, it looks like Oracle is beginning to worry about Informix! Why would I say that? Isn't Oracle "The world's most popular database!"? Why should they worry?

I dunno, but in February Oracle announced v18c (actually v12.2 but read on). This latest release of Oracle implements tons of features that have been in Informix for up to 28 years! The need to compete with Informix on features again seems to have surfaced!

Not to tout Oracle, but to point out how forward thinking the Informix development team is, witness:

  • Annual major releases with quarterly updates. To celebrate they have renamed v12.2 to be v18c after the year of its release. One assumes that the Q1 release next year will be v19c.
  • Ability to attach a table to another table as a partition - was that Informix 7.31?
  • All identifiers have been increased from 30 bytes to 128 bytes - Informix v7.30 circa 1998
  • Multitenancy
  • JSON support including dot notation in queries
    • Functions for converting table data to JSON
    • JSON operators in SQL queries
    • New API to allow JSON aware languages to query Oracle JSON documents
    • Ability to update fields within JSON documents
  • RAC based Database Sharding - well sort of. A shared RAC database can have its data segregated so that nodes only operate on a subset of the data. But it is still a monolithic store.
  • NonRAC based Database Sharding - well sort of. Applications must be shard aware. Inserts, updates, and deletes are directed to the appropriate shard in the API layer, not within the database server shard cluster.
  • "Connection Manager" enhanced to manage load balancing between multiple servers. Originally this was closer to Informix Connection Multiplexer feature.
  • Application Continuity - This is similar to Informix's Transaction Survival allowing transactions to complete when a server fails.
  • Session private temporary tables - Informix v4.01 the initial release of Informix Online circa 1990?
  • New Oracle autonomic features to allow for unmanaged cloud databases.

Monday, March 5, 2018

What are reasons to migrate away from Informix?

OK, I haven't lost my mind. I have been active on a social media site called Quora where people ask questions on just about any topic. Some are technical, some are social, some are just annoying. Recently someone asked the question above. Eric Vercelletto posted one answer and I posted another. Here is an expanded version of my response for your amusement.

The single most common reason to migrate away from Informix is FUD. Other RDBMS vendors have been spreading the FUD that Informix is dead legacy technology since the IBM acquisition in 2001 and that has resulted in many shops moving away from an RDBMS that had successfully supported their organizations for many years. Unfortunately IBM was one of the worst offenders. IBM sales people seeing dollar signs in their vision, if they sold new DB2 licenses instead of an Informix license renewal at 20% of the price, told customers the same thing "Don't stick with Informix it is going away!". That’s the main “reason”.

What are reasons to NOT migrate away from Informix? Well, the truth is that Informix is not a dead legacy technology. In the 16 years since IBM bought Informix the database from Informix Corp. IBM has made more improvements and innovations to the product than Informix itself had in the prior 18 years since the company started. Today Informix is still the best OLTP engine on the market. The Informix Warehouse Accelerator feature handles complex data warehouse queries against massive data marts several hundred times faster than any RDBMS, even faster than its sister product DB2 Blue Accelerator. Informix is the only RDBMS that can not only handle semi-structured JSON/BSON data as native data but can seamlessly integrate MongoDB style collections with relational tables and serve as a plug-in replacement for MongoDB extending that API with access to relational tables (as JSON results), generic SQL statements, and working reliable ACID transactions that include relational and JSON data today (Mongo promises to have its brand new ACID transaction feature ready next year). Informix timeseries support is as good as any dedicated timeseries database with the added benefit that Informix’s Virtual Table Interface allows one to present timeseries data to analytical tools that do not understand timeseries as if it were a flat relational table. Informix was the first RDBMS to fully support scale out sharding to create huge distributed databases spread across dozens or hundreds of physical servers build over heterogeneous technologies from different vendors.

On to other topics

Since taking over development and marketing of Informix and a number of other IBM software products last year, HCL has been more concerned with getting its ducks in a row and so little new or exciting has come out of HCL's Informix development group. Version 12.10.xC9, the first full release developed completely under HCL's auspices, did introduce smart triggers which is a good thing.

That said, version 12.10.xC10 actually included several new features and improvements:

  • added compression of blobspace BLOB data, 
  • backup to cloud storage services, 
  • the ability to swap primary and mirror chunks which can allow us to upgrade a server's storage to faster devices with no downtime, 
  • new sysmaster data and onstat options to help identify unused and little used indexes, 
  • the ability to retain data distributions and other statistics when truncating a table (useful for staging tables that are truncated and reloaded periodically), 
  • the ability to reconnect to a smart trigger session without missing data when an application exits and restarts, 
  • expanded audit details about sessions and users, 
  • added compression of string fields in timeseries subtypes, 
  • expanded geodetic data support for additional coordinate systems (x,y coordinates; GPS; industry specific coordinates).

There are two updates to the IBM online Knowledge Center pages about Smart Triggers:

Generic information about how to register for Smart Trigger Push Data:


JDBC API for Smart Triggers:


Other than this the online Knowledge Center pages have also lagged. Also there has not been a new set of Informix PDF documentation since 12.10.xC8. I do put the onus for the documentation SNAFU firmly on the shoulders of IBM, though, not HCL because after transferring responsibility for the software to HCL IBM disbanded the Informix documentation team without informing HCL that they might want to take that effort over as well. I think that this issue is in the process of being resolved.

Big Announcement

Over this past weekend, HCL announced that Informix instances are now available on AWS, the Amazon Cloud. There are dozens of different configurations that will cost from pennies an hour to six dollar figures per annum to meet the needs of organizations from startups to large enterprises. If you are considering moving your databases to the clouds, there are now alternatives to the IBM cloud for Informix users. HCL promises other major cloud providers will become available soon.

Monday, October 30, 2017

New features in Informix 12.10.xC9

I am stoked! HCL has released the first update to Informix Dynamic Server developed under their auspices. There are two significant new features in the .xC9 release, one is an enhancement to how time series and spatial data work together that adds significant performance and utility to that feature and the other is a completely new feature that users have been asking for for years. I will cover them in order:

Track Location and Time Together

STS_SubtrackCreate() function which creates the "subtrack" table over which the spatiotemporal  index is created. That done the STS_SubtrackBuild() function populates the subtract table and builds the initial index contents. Spatiotemporal indexes are relatively static, however you can configure the Timeseries such that it automatically updates the index when data elements are added to the Timeseries record.

The biggest change in the .xC9 release is improved time granularity of the spatiotemporal data making it easier to search and locate allowing new searches that answer "When was an object in a specified area?" "What objects were in this area at this time?" "At what time were there some objects in this area?"

Applications to Receive Asynchronous Notice of Data Changes 

Client applications can now create Smart Triggers that register them to receive notification when there are changes in a data set. The API uses SELECT statements and WHERE clauses to identify which specific data each application is interested in, and an application can register to receive push data from multiple source tables. Once registered the server will push new and modified data from the server to those clients interested in those specific rows. 

Because the client applications do not have to poll the server looking for new data, greater scaling and responsiveness is achieved by those apps. At the same time the database server's parallel architecture can feed the data to all clients by asynchronously reading logical log file changes. This design lets client applications scale linearly without adding significant overhead to the database server. Since the changes are scraped from the logical logs asynchronous to the session threads actually modifying the data, by using the Enterprise Replication log scraping threads, there is no performance effect on the OLTP applications that are making the changes to the database.

Previously you might have emulated this behavior using insert, update, and delete triggers on the tables that called to a C or JAVA library function, but the process of trapping the trigger and sending data synchronously would slow down the front-end transactions causing potentially serious scaling and concurrency problems for applications.Registering is fairly straight forward and is documented in the Enterprise Replication Guide. Basically you call a registration function passing in a BSON record containing fields defining the table you are registering for, a SELECT statement with an appropriate WHERE clause to filter the rows you are interested in, a label you want to use to distinguish data blocks from one table from those originating from another, a timeout setting, the number of elements you want to receive in each message, how many messages to allow to queue up, and the earliest transaction time you want to receive data updates from.I am particularly stoked about this one because I think it will be key to the success of a new project I am working on for a client. Perhaps when it is all finished I will be able to get permission to talk about it.

Going Forward

There has been a long gap since my last post. I apologize. I have not been ignoring the community nor have I given up on Informix as some have suggested and gone off to do other things. On the contrary, the main reason for my silence is that the past year has been my busiest in a long time. If I ever entertained fears that Informix is dying this year would have put those to bed for me for sure. I have seen one client upgrade their servers to the latest releases three times. Two clients implement IWA successfully. One going from Proof of Concept to production in four months and in the process saving over a million dollars over the alternative free "open source" solution while exceeding the predicted performance the "other" solution promised! The other implemented a new vertical product for the industry that it serves that will allow their customers to perform more detailed analytics in less time with fewer resources.

I have spent several months helping another client expand their use of Informix throughout their organization through which effort they were able to improve the timeliness and reliability of the services they provide to their customers and so to their customers customers among whom are counted many reading this post (including me). So, you are welcome. 

One of my current projects, mentioned in passing above, is very different for me and has me excited because it is allowing me to do some database design. That's one of the more fun things I do. Recently performance tuning, installations, training, and feature implementation have taken up my time and I haven't had the opportunity to work on a design project in a while. Enjoying the change. 

IIUG Update

I just returned from the IIUG Board of Directors fall meeting. This year we met for the first time formally with HCL executives and development management. Some of you may have been dismayed by the Editorial in the recent IIUG Insider. I have to report that the feedback from HCL in response to Gary's concerns was overall heartening. It seems that mostly HCL didn't think it was important to keep the IIUG informed. There are new things in the queue that the Board members will be able to discuss publicly as soon as some outside hindrances to roll out are overcome. There is exciting news pending for market segments that previously could not take advantage of Informix. That's about all I can say for now, but hopefully the news will be released in time for the next Insider. Although Murphy is probably working hard to cause it to miss Gary's deadline by a day B^(

Stay tuned there is lots happening in the Informix world. And don't forget to start working on getting permission to attend the IIUG World 2018 conference in Washington DC in October 2018!

Wednesday, May 3, 2017

A new era for Informix begins now!

I returned from last week's International Informix Users Group Conference with some news. What kind of news it is I am not 100% certain. I am certain that it is BIG news. I am certain that it affects most of us in one way or another. I am not certain whether it is good news or bad news for the Informix user community or same-old same-old. I have been saying since I heard it that I am guardedly optimistic that this is good news.
For those of you who have not heard, IBM and a company called HCL have partnered to "jointly develop and market the Informix family of products". IBM has licensed the intellectual property rights for all Informix products to HCL for a period of at least 15 years with options for renewal. As part of the deal IBM will retain ownership but HCL will be responsible for developing the products and for tech support. Indeed HCL will be hiring all Informix developers and support personnel who are willing to make the change. (My understanding is that so far all US Informix developers and support people have agree to sign up and tentative offers have been made to the Informix folks in Europe and Asia pending government paperwork in those areas.) HCL will also be free to market and sell Informix as well as to develop "derivative products". Decisions about the product life cycle and roadmap will be made by IBM and HCL together.
What does this mean for existing customers? Immediately not much. You will still be able to renew your support and purchase additional Informix licenses from IBM. You will still call the same support phone lines or use the same online support portal. The technicians responding will simply be HCL employees and likely the same people you have been dealing with all along.
This is a link to a LinkedIn post by Mattias Funke Director Core Database & Data Warehouse Offering Management & Strategy at IBM explaining the deal:  https://goo.gl/CY4nyO
HCL is a global consulting and IT software group headquartered in India with locations throughout the world. Their Product and Platform business unit which was started in September is based in New York and will manage the Informix products in addition to their own product lines which concentrate on IOT, embedded systems, and cloud computing. These are all strengths of Informix and explains HCLs interest in the partnership. 
In discussions with their executives at the IIUG Conference we were told that HCL is very interested in focusing their own products on working with Informix and in making Informix THE player in the database market. 
IBM's internal politics have always prevented IBM from fully embracing Informix for the market leading database that it is and this has encouraged much of the FUD intimating that Informix is a dead or dying product. HCL has no such constraints on it. Someone said at the Conference "the gloves are off!" We may even see advertising about the benefits and features of Informix. I am hopeful. The Informix community will be waiting to see how HCL follows up on these opportunities and promises and how this changes the marketplace for Informix.

Friday, July 15, 2016

Some Very Cool Things Are Happening in the Informix World

I read two interesting things this week. One was an award that Informix won and the other is a White Paper Bloor put out. Both reference Informix as a platform for IoT or Internet of Things data storage and processing.

First, on July 14, 2016 at the annual Cisco Live conference in Las Vegas Nevada, Cisco presented IBM with an award naming IBM Informix as the "Best IoT Database" on the market today. I know this is no surprise to you, but this is the biggest third party acknowledgement of Informix's role in a major company's product and market strategy. Most of the businesses that depend on Informix for the competitive edge it gives them over their competitors who use other RDBMS and non-SQL databases are not willing to talk about it. This is a coup for Informix and a great boon for the Informix user community. Here's a link to the annoucement on the IIUG Site:

The other item is the Bloor Report which describes IBM Informix as the perfect database for IoT installations "regardless of where (in the IoT pipeline) it needs to be deployed". Among other things, Bloor's Philip Howard wrote:

[It] is essential that any embedded database is invisible and remains that way. This is true regardless of whether you are simply collecting data and passing it on or whether you are performing some analytics on the data. In the latter case, in order to get good performance, you need, at least in
conventional environments, to create indexes, materialised views and other such database constructs in order to achieve that performance. While this is feasible it is not flexible in the event that additional requirements need to be supported. Every time you add functionality within the device or gateway you will need to change the supported indexes. Worse, different workloads may mean that different indexes, materialised tables and so forth will be differently suitable for different customers. Moreover, these workloads may change over time. What this will mean is that the database will need to be tuned on an ongoing basis in order to maintain performance, which is impractical in IoT environments. For all of these reasons a traditional relational database will not be suitable for embedding at the device or gateway level, precisely because these all require exactly this sort of tuning. Fortunately, this is not the case with IBM Informix because the product includes self-healing and self-tuning autonomics that handle these embedded environment requirements automatically. Secondly, there are some elements of database flexibility that need to be discussed with specific respect to IoT environments. Support for things like geo-spatial and time series data we will discuss later. In the context of flexibility, you must bear in mind that an IoT implementation may consist of multiple types of devices and gateways doing different things. Moreover, the sort of data you are collecting and processing may change over time. For both of these reasons a database that supports a flexible schema will be preferable and as a result of these considerations IBM Informix supports JSON (where each data object has its own schema) as first class objects within the database.
Depending on where (an IoT database) is implemented there will be rather different requirements. However, in our opinion IBM Informix is well-suited to IoT regardless of where it needs to be deployed. At the device and gateway level the product has a long-standing reputation as a “fire and forget” database that can be easily installed and maintained while, in the centre, it has the sort of capabilities and performance characteristics that suit hybrid operational/analytic environments. On top of this, native time series and geo-spatial support are requirements for many IoT use cases, so IBM Informix is well-placed in this market.

Very cool indeed! Here's a link to the full Bloor Report: